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Making life good in the community - Measures resident outcomes and staff perceptions
Making life good in the community is a three year research project that examed how best to support people with an intellectual disability living in group homes to lead fulfilling lives.

Sheet 1 (Copyright)

© Copyright State of Victoria, Department of Human Services, 2012.
This publication is copyright. No part may be reproduced by any process except in
Accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968.
ISBN 978-0-7311-6367-0 (print version), 978-0-7311-6368-7 (online PDF version)

Sheet 2 (Data)

Table 1a: Number of houses with survey participants managed by each departmental regional office
Region responsible Known locality group homes New locality group homes Total n%
Eastern Metropolitan 18 6 24 57
Southern Metropolitan 0 5 5 12
North and West Metropolitan 0 11 11 27
Barwon-South Western 0 1 1 2
Gippsland 0 1 1 2
Total 18 24 42 100
Table 1b: Characteristics of residents at Time 1
Gender New locality (n = 50) Known locality (n = 50) Combined (n = 100)
% % %
Male 70 74 72
Female 30 26 28
Age in years New locality (n = 50) Known locality (n = 50) Combined (n = 100)
Mean 46.1 49.54 47.82
SD 7.67 7.91 7.66
Level of disability New locality (n = 50) Known locality (n = 50) Combined (n = 100)
% % %
Mild/moderate 26.5 53.2 39.6
Severe/profound 73.5 46.8 60.4
Years at KRS New locality (n = 50) Known locality (n = 50) Combined (n = 100)
Mean 36.05 39.67 37.82
SD 8.04 7.8 8.09
SD = standard deviation
Table 2: Means and standard deviations for choice measures at Time 1 and Time 2
Total mean choice Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
New locality 1.96 0.38 2.02 0.31 0.95 0.02
Known locality 2.32 0.48 2.89 0.56 8.87* 0.67
Combined sample 2.12 0.46 2.42 0.62 5.53* 0.26
Note: Possible range of scores: 1 (low choice) to 4 (high choice)
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; ·2 = eta-squared
Table 3: Means and standard deviations for measures of homeliness of the setting at Time 1 and Time 2
Homeliness Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
New locality homes 0.75 3.38 0.51 5.34* 0.38
Known locality 0.85 3.84 0.47 6.37* 0.49
Combined sample 0.8 3.6 0.54 8.28* 0.43
Note: Possible range of scores: 1 (not at all homelike) to 5 (very homelike)
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 4: Means and standard deviations for residential climate measures at Time 1 and Time 2  new locality group home and known locality residents
New locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Rigidity routines 8.03 2.86 5.29 1.66  4.12* 0.36
Depersonalisation 14.41 1.64 12.17 1.47  6.05* 0.57
Block treatment 8.11 0.88 6.21 0.98  5.86* 0.66
Social distance 9.17 1.88 6.2 1.82  8.18* 0.63
Known locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Rigidity routines 5.3 3.2 4.13 3.35  1.39 0.08
Depersonalisation 12.24 4.22 9.15 3.89  7.05* 0.61
Block treatment 6.68 1.91 4.05 1.84  6.72* 0.68
Social distance 8.22 3.55 4.12 2.56  9.34* 0.69
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 5: Means and standard deviations for residential climate measures at Time 1 and Time 2  combined sample
Combined sample Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Rigidity routines 6.87 3.27 4.8 2.56  3.91* 0.22
Depersonalisation 13.26 3.43 10.56 3.35  9.19* 0.58
Block treatment 7.34 1.67 5.05 1.84  8.75* 0.66
Social distance 8.7 2.86 5.16 2.44  12.20* 0.65
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 6: Means and standard deviations for ABS adaptive behaviour scores at Time 1 and Time 2  new locality group home and known locality residents
New locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Total adaptive 60 38.69 66 43.2 2 0.08
Self-sufficiency 39.72 22.59 39.53 21.53  0.11 0
Community 11.09 10.21 14.06 12.76 2.71* 0.14
Personal/social 9.19 9.68 12.4 12.83 2.25* 0.1
Known locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Total adaptive 119.95 78.02 121.16 82.47 0.26 0
Self-sufficiency 57.05 23.66 50.73 26.69  2.91* 0.16
Community 35.84 37.05 39.48 38.28 1.54* 0.05
Personal/social responsibility 27.07 23.39 30.95 23.07 2.42* 0.12
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; ·2 = eta-squared
Table 7: Means and standard deviations for ABS adaptive behaviour scores at Time 1 and Time 2  combined sample
Combined sample Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
Total adaptive 88.99 67.68 92.67 70.51 1.36 0.02
Self-sufficiency 48.1 24.58 44.95 24.67  2.21* 0.05
Community 23.05 29.4 26.35 30.76 2.60* 0.07
Personal/social 17.84 19.75 21.37 20.62 3.32* 0.11
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 8: Means and standard deviations for ABS maladaptive behaviour scores at Time 1 and Time 2
Total maladaptive Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
New locality homes 68.72 35.23 66.09 34.59  0.46 0
Known locality 66.95 41.36 46.32 44.19  3.41* 0.21
Combined sample 67.87 38.11 56.53 40.53  2.68* 0.07
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; ·2 = eta-squared
Table 9: Means and standard deviations for recreational/community activity measures at Time 1 and Time 2
No. of activities Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD M SD
New locality 7.3 4.42 9.7 5.55 2.63* 0.13
Known locality 12.39 7.69 21.15 13.46 5.25* 0.41
Combined sample 9.67 6.63 15.03 11.51 5.51* 0.26
* p < .05
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; 2 = · eta-squared
Table 10: Percentages for recreational/community activity measures at Time 1 and Time 2
No. of activities Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Known locality Combined
New locality Known locality Combined New locality
Had guests to stay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Had family/friends around for meal 8 19.1 13.4 23.4 52.3 37.4
Been to a social club 6 21.3 13.4 12.8 65.9 38.5
Stayed overnight with family/friends 4 17 10.3 2.1 13.6 7.7
Had trips out with family or friends 36 53.2 44.3 42.6 54.5 48.4
Been to a café 94 95.7 94.8 93.6 95.5 96.7
Been to a pub 6 17 11.3 12.8 38.6 25.3
Been to a hairdresser 52 44.7 48.5 89.4 86.4 87.9
Been shopping 78 87.2 82.5 76.6 95.5 85.7
Been to place of religious worship 4 2.1 3.1 6.4 2.3 4.4
Been to a sports event 6 25.5 15.5 0 38.6 18.7
Been to a cinema 50 55.3 52.6 27.7 52.3 39.6
Been to a concert or play 2 21.3 11.3 40.4 52.3 46.2
Been to their bank 0 4.3 2.1 0 0 0
Table 11: Employment or day occupation of residents
Occupation New locality % Known locality % Combined sample %
Membership of workforce (full or part time) 15 2 8
Full-time centre-based day activity program 61 83 72
Part-time centre or flexible home-based program 13 17 22
No regular day activity 2 2 3
Table 12: Means and standard deviations of informal network size at Time 1 and Time 2
Locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 t · 2
M SD Range M SD Range
New locality 1.64 0.67 1 3 1.13 0.71 0 3  3.68** 0.23
Known locality 1.4 1.05 0 4 2.65 1.48 0 6 5.23** 0.39
Combined sample 1.52 0.88 0 4 1.86 1.37 0 6 2.03* 0.04
* p < .05, ** p < .01
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 13: Size of informal network for known locality and new locality residents at Time 1 and Time 2
Network size Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
New locality n New locality % Known locality n Known locality % Combined n Combined % New locality n New locality % Known locality n Known locality % Combined n Combined %
0 10 23.3 0 0 10 11.1 3 7 8 17 11 12.2
1 12 27.9 22 46.8 34 37.8 7 16.3 26 55.3 33 36.7
2 17 39.5 20 42.6 37 41.1 11 25.6 12 25.5 23 25.6
3 2 4.7 5 10.6 7 7.8 8 18.6 1 2.1 9 10
4 2 4.7 0 0 2 2.2 10 23.3 o 0 10 11.1
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 O 0 3 3.3
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.3 0 0 1 1.1
Total 43 100 47 100 90 100 43 100 47 100 90 100
Table 14: Means and standard deviations of family, other ID, and other non-ID in social network at Time 1 and Time 2
New locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Range Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
M SD M SD Range
Family 1.62 0.64 1 3 1.13 0.71 0 3
Other ID      
Other non-ID 0.02 0.15 0 1   
Known locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Range Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
M SD M SD Range
Family 1.28 1.01 0 4 1.09 0.84 0 4
Other ID    1.19 1.31 0 4
Combined sample Time 1 Time 1 Range Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
SD M SD Range
Family 1.46 0.85 0 4 1.11 0.77 0 4
Other ID    0.57 1.08 0 4
Other non-ID 0.07 0.29 0 2 0.13 0.4 0 2
M = mean; SD = standard deviation
Table 15a: Percentage frequency of contact of residents with family members at Time 1 and Time 2
Family Contact frequency Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined
n % n % n % n % n % n %
None 0 0% 12 0.28% 12 0.14% 8 0.19% 10 0.24% 18 0.21%
Few times/ year 27 0.60% 10 0.23% 37 0.42% 16 0.38% 11 0.26% 27 0.32%
Monthly 13 0.29% 12 0.28% 25 0.28% 8 0.19% 15 0.36% 23 0.27%
Weekly 5 0.11% 9 0.21% 14 0.16% 10 0.24% 6 0.14% 16 0.19%
Daily 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Total 45 1% 43 1% 88 1% 42 1% 42 1% 84 1%
Weekly or more 5 0.11% 9 0.21% 14 0.16% 10 0.24% 6 0.14% 16 0.19%
Note: Frequency of family contact is based on the highest rating given by a resident to a family member.
Table 15b: Percentage frequency of contact of residents with friends with an ID at Time 1 and Time 2
Other non-ID Contact frequency Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined
n % n % n % n % n % n %
None 47 1% 43 1% 90 1.00% 47 1% 20 0.47% 67 0.74%
Few times/year 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Monthly 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 15 0.35% 15 0.17% 0.27%
Weekly 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 5 0.12% 5 0.06% 0.19%
Daily 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 3 0.07% 3 0.03% 0%
Total 47 1% 43 1% 90 1% 47 1% 43 1% 90 1%
Weekly or more 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 47 1% 8 0.19% 8 0.09%
Table 15c: Percentage frequency of contact of residents with others without an intellectual disability at Time 1 and Time 2
Other non-ID Contact frequency Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined New locality New locality Known locality Known locality Combined Combined
n % n % n % n % n % n %
None 46 0.98% 39 0.91% 85 0.94% 47 1.00% 33 0.77% 80 0.89%
Few times/year 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Monthly 1 0.02% 4 0.09% 5 0.06% 0 5 0.12% 5 0.06% 0.27%
Weekly 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 5 0.12% 5 0.06% 0.19%
Daily 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Total 47 1% 43 1% 90 1% 47 1% 43 1% 90 1%
Weekly or more 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 5 0.12% 5 0.06%
All informal contacts Weekly or more Contact 5 0.11% 9 0.21% 14 0.16% 10 0.24% 14 0.33% 24 0.28%
Note: Frequency of contact is based on the highest rating given by a resident to a friend.
Table 16: Median ratings for nature of family contacts for known locality and new locality residents at Time 1 and Time 2
Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
Concrete support a Emotional support Information/ advice Critical Concrete support Emotional support Information / advice Critical
New locality 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1
Known locality 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 1
a All items are measured on the scale 1 = Hardly ever, 2 = Sometimes, 3 = Almost always
Table 17: Median ratings for family contacts for known locality and new locality residents at Time 1 and Time 2
Location Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2
Direction of help a Closeness b How often seen c How long known d Direction of help Closeness How often seen How long known
New locality 2 2 1 3 2 3 1.5 3
Known locality 2 3 1.5 3 2 3 2 3
a 1 = Goes both ways, 2 = Person listed to resident, 3 = Resident to person listed
b 1 = Not very close, 2 = Quite close, 3 = Very close
c 1 = Few times/year, 2 = Monthly, 3 = Weekly, 4 = Daily
d 1 = Less than 1 year, 2 = From 1  5 years, 3 = 5 years or more
Table 18: Means and standard deviations of co-resident friends with an ID at Time 1 and Time 2
No of co-resident friends Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t ·2
M SD Range M SD Range
New locality 5.74 1.54 2 11 3.64 0.74 3 5  9.32* 0.65
Known locality 5.63 1.63 0 8 4.05 0.74 3 7  5.96* 0.47
Combined sample 5.69 1.58 0 11 3.83 0.76 3 7  8.46* 0.45
*p < .01
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; ·2 = eta-squared
Table 19: Means and standard deviations of informal network size for residents with a mild or severe intellectual disability at Time 1 and Time 2
New locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t K2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/moderate. 1.91 0.7 1 3 1.36 0.5 1 2  3.46** 0.5
Severe/profound 1.54 0.66 1 3 1.03 0.75 0 3  2.85** 0.19
Known locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t K2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/moderate 1.23 0.92 0 3 2.95 1.4 0 5 6.50** 0.67
Severe/profound 1.5 1.1 0 4 2.39 1.54 0 6 2.01* 0.19
Combined Sample Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 t K2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/moderate (n = 33) 1.54 0.9 0 3 2.42 1.39 0 5 3.69** 0.3
Severe/profound (n = 53) 1.52 0.82 0 4 1.49 1.25 0 6  0.18 0
** p < .01
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared
Table 20: Staff perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of relocation to small group homes
Advantages of relocation New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Redeveloped (n = 44) Redeveloped (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
Improved, less stressful environment 40 0.82% 35 0.80% 75 0.81%
Greater individualised support possible 18 0.37% 8 0.18% 26 0.28%
More contact with friends and family 8 0.16% 2 0.04% 10 0.11%
Greater choice and control 7 0.14% 5 0.11% 12 0.13%
Better quality day program 6 0.12% 0.00% 6 0.07%
Better resident health 5 0.10% 5 0.11% 10 0.11%
Fewer challenging behaviours 5 0.10% 4 0.09% 9 0.10%
More domestic and community activities 2 0.04% 4 0.09% 6 0.07%
More consistent staff - 0.00% 3 0.07% 3 0.03%
Disadvantages of relocation New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Redeveloped (n = 44) Redeveloped (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
None 7 0.14% 16 0.36% 23 0.25%
Reduced access to specialist health care 16 0.33% 4 0.09% 20 0.21%
Less freedom of movement 9 0.18% 9 0.20% 18 0.19%
No shared support or backup 4 0.08% 5 0.11% 9 0.10%
Residents miss familiar staff 4 0.08% 0.00% 4 0.04%
Residents miss friends 4 0.08% 0.00% 4 0.04%
Residents miss a busy environment 4 0.08% 6 0.14% 10 0.11%
Table 21: Staff perceptions of community inclusion for residents
Meaning of community inclusion for this resident New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Known locality (n = 44) Known locality (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
Use of community facilities 28 0.57% 23 0.52% 51 0.55%
Doing activities in the community 25 0.51% 25 0.57% 50 0.54%
Social interaction with community members 5 0.10% 5 0.11% 10 0.11%
Occurs at day program 9 0.18% 9 0.20% 16 0.17%
Unable to say or has little meaning 5 0.10% 4 0.09% 9 0.10%
Exercising choice 3 0.06% 5 0.11% 8 0.09%
Table 22: Staff perceptions of the meaning of participation
Meaning of participation for this resident New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Known locality (n = 44) Known locality (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
Activities out of home 16 0.33% 16 0.36% 32 0.34%
Going out with co-residents 2 0.04% 16 0.36% 18 0.19%
Problematic as dislikes people and busy places 15 0.31% 2 0.04% 17 0.18%
Exercising choice 6 0.12% 10 0.23% 16 0.17%
Doing domestic chores at home 7 0.14% 7 0.16% 14 0.15%
Going out with others (not co-residents) 2 0.04% 7 0.16% 9 0.10%
Very limited 3 0.06% 4 0.09% 7 0.07%
Table 23: Staff perception of the meaning of choice for the particular resident
Meaning of choice for this resident New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Known locality (n = 44) Known locality (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
Choosing food 29 0.59% 19 0.43% 48 0.52%
Choosing other day-to-day to day things such as activity 19 0.39% 29 0.66% 48 0.52%
Very limited possibilities 29 0.59% 20 0.46% 49 0.53%
Very risky 4 0.08% 3 0.07% 7 0.07%
Very complex 1 0.02% 2 0.04% 3 0.03%
Table 24: Staff perceptions of factors that support provision of individualised support
Factors that support individualised support New locality (n = 49) New locality (n = 49) Known locality (n = 44) Known locality (n = 44) Combined (n = 93) Combined (n = 93)
n % n % n %
Staff competence 28 0.57% 13 0.29% 41 0.44%
Staff knowledge of the resident and good planning 7 0.14% 26 0.59% 33 0.35%
Number of staff 11 0.22% 3 0.07% 14 0.15%
Knowledge of external resources 9 0.18% 2 0.04% 11 0.12%
Availability of family and friends 4 0.08% 0.00% 4 0.04%
Table 25: Staff perception of the obstacles to providing support
Nature of obstacle Area of support: Inclusion % Area of support: Participation % Area of support: Choice% Area of support: Individualised support %
Resident characteristics 76.3 69.9 80 21.5
Meaningfulness for resident   64.5 
Staff skills 12.9 5.4 4.3 15.1
Staff availability 16.1 16.1 3.2 48.4
Community attitudes and physical barriers 3.2 3.3  
Table 26: Comparison key network dimensions with other studies
Network dimensions KRS (current study) (n = 91) % Robertson et al. 2001, total sample (n = 500) % Robertson et al. 2001, community (n = 281) % KRS residents relocated in 1999, Bigby 2008(n = 24) %
Percentage with no family contact 26.6 18 19 16
Percentage in contact with one or fewer family members 48 25  
Percentage in contact with three or fewer family members 84  25 
Percentage in contact with five or fewer family members 96 75  
Percentage in contact with six or fewer family members 100  75 
Mean size of network and range 1.86 2 3 1.92
0 6 0 13 0 13 0 6
Percentage of sample with a network member who was not a family member of person with an ID 10.8 30 44 13
Mean size of family in network   1.9 
Mild/moderate ID 1.16   
Serve/profound ID 1.09   
Appendix 3: Means and standard deviations of family network size for residents with mild or severe intellectual disability at Time 1 and Time 2.
New locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 t h2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/ moderate 1.82 0.6 1 3 1.36 0.5 1 2 -2.89** 0.46
Severe/ profound 1.54 0.66 1 3 1.03 0.75 0 3 -2.85** 0.19
Known locality Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 t h2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/ moderate 1 0.89 0 2 1.05 0.8 0 2 0.24 0
Severe/ profound 1.5 1.1 0 4 1.22 0.94 0 4 -0.89 0.04
Combined sample Time 1 Time 1 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Time 2 t h2
M SD Range M SD Range
Mild/ moderate(n = 32) 1.28 0.89 0 3 1.16 0.72 0 2 -0.85 0.02
Severe/ profound(n = 53) 1.53 0.82 0 4 1.09 0.81 0 4 -2.74** 0.13
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; t = t-test; · 2 = eta-squared

 

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